Difference between revisions of "Antennas"

From SatNOGS
m (style changes on tables)
(major revamp)
Line 2: Line 2:
 
<p>The type of antenna largely depends on the type of ground station. A no rotator ground station will benefit from a different type of antenna (omnidirectional) than a rotator based ground station (directional). The two different approaches are explored below. In addition to the choice of antenna the choice of location for the ground station will have an effect on the quality of observations.</p>
 
<p>The type of antenna largely depends on the type of ground station. A no rotator ground station will benefit from a different type of antenna (omnidirectional) than a rotator based ground station (directional). The two different approaches are explored below. In addition to the choice of antenna the choice of location for the ground station will have an effect on the quality of observations.</p>
  
==Non-Rotator Ground Station==
+
==Non-Rotator Ground Station (Omnidirectional)==
 +
This type of ground station will require an antenna that will give a broad coverage from its fixed position. It is therefore not just the antenna that needs to be considered but also the proximity of buildings, geography or metallic structures that might be in the path of a line of sight between the ground station and satellite.<p>Typical ground stations have had success with simple wire antennas that can be commercially bought or made at home. Colinear or &lsquo;white stick&rsquo; antennas are vertically polarised omnidirectional antennas. These have anecdotally been used for successful satellite work but should be avoided. The following are considered suitable choices:</p><p>'''It is highly recommended that you use a mast-mounted Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) with these antennas.'''</p>
 
{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"
 
! style="width: 49%" |
 
! style="width: 49%" |
Line 17: Line 18:
 
Estimated cost: 90€
 
Estimated cost: 90€
  
Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:
+
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
  
 
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/141/ 141 - balcony-only-east-passes]
 
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/141/ 141 - balcony-only-east-passes]
Line 25: Line 26:
 
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/129/ 129 - Chabot Space And Science Center]
 
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/129/ 129 - Chabot Space And Science Center]
  
[http://oz9aec.net/antennas/air-tests-wimo-ta-1-turnstile-antenna OZ9AEC Review]
+
* [https://www.wimo.com/scanner-antennas_e.html#004 Product link]
 +
* [http://oz9aec.net/antennas/air-tests-wimo-ta-1-turnstile-antenna OZ9AEC Review]
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:VHF Turnstile.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== Turnstile ====
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/13/ 13 - OZ9AEC-VHF1]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/7/ 7 - Stony]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/16/ 16 - VK5QI-70CM]
 +
 +
* SatNOGS Turnstile Antenna (TBD)
 +
* [https://www.vk4adc.com/web/vhfuhf-projects/26-multiband-ants/156-turnstile-vhf-uhf-fds VK4ADC instructions for VHF and UHF Turnstile antennas]
 +
* [https://www.aeronetworks.ca/2017/12/amateur-satcom-rx-antenna-for-2-meter.html Six-element tape-measure VHF Turnstile with modeled patterns (could be used as directional) by Herman Oosthuysen]
 +
|-
 +
|[[File:M2 Eggbeaters.png|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== M2 Eggbeater ====
 +
VHF / UHF Eggbeater Antennas
 +
 +
Estimated cost: $304 (VHF), $280 (UHF), $573 (combo)
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/50/ 50 - N5CNB-UHF]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/77/ 77 - N5CNB-VHF]
 +
 +
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FGEB144RK2M Product link for VHF]
 +
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FGEB432RK70CM Product link for UHF]
 +
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FGSATPACK1 Product link for combination package]
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:VHF EZ-Lindenblad.png|left|frameless|112x112px]]
 +
 +
==== Lindenblad ====
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/12/ 12 - W2BFJ]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/98/ 98 - Grove-UHF-01]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/442/ 442 - DL1UNX-FFB VHF]
 +
 +
* [https://www.amsat.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/An-EZ-Lindenblad-Antenna-for-2-Meters2.pdf AA2TX EZ-Lindenblad design can be found at this AMSAT PDF]
 +
* [https://www.qsl.net/py4zbz/DCA.pdf KD6JDJ instructions can be found at this QST PDF]
 +
* [https://www.amsat.org/articles/w6shp/lindy.html W6SHP instructions for VHF and UHF Lindenblad]
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|[[File:Winkler Turnstile.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== Winkler Turnstile ====
 +
VHF/UHF Turnstile Antennas
 +
 +
Estimated cost: 40€ (VHF), 30€ (UHF)
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
TBD
 +
 +
* [http://www.winklerantennenbau.de/sonst.htm Pricing page]
 +
* [http://www.winklerantennenbau.de/kreuz137.htm Product link for VHF]
 +
* [http://www.winklerantennenbau.de/kreuz446.htm Product link for UHF]
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:UHF Paralindy.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== UHF Parasitic Lindenblad ====
 +
Estimated cost: $15 (with access to a 3D printer)
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/300/ 300 - KB9JHU-Experimental]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/32/ 32 - SV1QZZ - UHF #2]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/187/ 187 - K3LRD UHF Lindenblad]
 +
 +
* [https://www.amsat.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/70ParaLindy.pdf Instructions can be found at this AMSAT PDF by AA2TX]
 +
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:Quadrifilar Antennas.png|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== Quadrifilar Helix Antenna (QFH) ====
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/272/ 272 - K3LRD VHF QFH]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/255/ 255 - EA5BZ - Elche]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/183/ 183 - SPUTNIX-R2ANF-VHF/UHF-stationary]
 +
 +
* [http://www.g4ilo.com/qfh.html G4ILO QFH Instructions]
 +
* [https://www.aeronetworks.ca/2017/12/parasitic-quadrifilar-helical-antenna.html VHF Model/patterns for QFH by Herman Oosthuysen]
 +
* [http://jcoppens.com/ant/qfh/calc.en.php QFH Calculator by ON6JC/LW3HAZ]
 +
* [https://community.libre.space/t/an-easy-3d-printed-quadrifilar-helix-antenna/1487 3D Printed UHF QFH Antenna by surligas]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
|
+
|[[File:Vhf moxon turnstile.png|left|frameless|100x100px]]
|}
+
 
<p></p>
+
==== "Turnstiled" Moxon ====
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
  
<p>This type of ground station will require an antenna that will give a broad coverage from its fixed position. It is therefore not just the antenna that needs to be considered but also the proximity of buildings, geography or metallic structures that might be in the path of a line of sight between the ground station and satellite.</p>
+
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
  
<p>Typical ground stations have had success with simple wire antennas that can be commercially bought or made at home. Colinear or &lsquo;white stick&rsquo; antennas are vertically polarised omnidirectional antennas. These have anecdotally been used for successful satellite work but should be avoided. The following are considered suitable choices:</p>
+
TBD
<p>&nbsp;</p>
 
<ul>
 
<li>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnstile_antenna Turnstile Antenna]. The SatNOGS design is [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/Turnstile here].
 
</li>
 
<li>[http://www.g4ilo.com/qfh.html Quadrafila Helix Antenna (QFH)]</li>
 
<li>[http://www.amsat.org/articles/w6shp/lindy.html Lindenblad]</li>
 
</ul>
 
  
<p>Suppliers for the various antennas are wide and varied, some of the better known European suppliers are [http://www.wimo.com/scanner-antennas_e.html Wimo], [https://shop.amsat-uk.org/FUNCube_TLM_Receive_Antenna/p3815740_15628535.aspx AMSAT-UK] and [http://www.winklerantennenbau.de/sonst.htm Winkler]</p>
+
* [https://sat.fg8oj.com/images/VHFUHFSatelite.pdf Instructions can be found at this QST article by W4RNL]
 +
|}
 +
<p></p>
  
 
==Rotator Ground Station==
 
==Rotator Ground Station==
 +
A rotator based ground station is able to make use of directional antennas. These will have a directional gain, meaning that you will need to point them in the direction of the satellite but the signal you receive will be stronger and for longer. They will allow much lower to the horizon passes to be received and more successful observations. These are not complex antennas but the choice will depend on the type of satellite and there are variations on the main types: yagi, helical and quad.<p></p>
  
 
{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"
Line 61: Line 155:
 
=== Homebrew Antennas ===
 
=== Homebrew Antennas ===
 
|-
 
|-
|[[File:WiMo TA-1.gif|left|frameless|160x160px]]
+
|[[File:M2 Leopack.png|left|frameless|100x100px]]
  
==== WiMo TA-1 ====
+
==== M2 Circularly Polarized Yagis ====
 +
VHF/UHF Cross-element Yagi
  
===== VHF Turnstile =====
+
Estimated cost: $296 (UHF), $296 (VHF), $638 (Combo kit)
Estimated cost: 90€
 
  
Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:
+
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
  
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/141/ 141 - balcony-only-east-passes]
+
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/2/ 2 - KB9JHU]
  
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/33/ 33 - G7KSE]
+
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/109/ 109 - EA6WQ - Tomas Orzaez]
  
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/129/ 129 - Chabot Space And Science Center]
+
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/25/ 25 - N7IPY]
  
[http://oz9aec.net/antennas/air-tests-wimo-ta-1-turnstile-antenna OZ9AEC Review]
+
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FG2MCP8A Product link - VHF]
 +
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FG436CP16 Product link - UHF]
 +
* [https://www.m2inc.com/FGLEOPACK Product link - Combo kit]
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:Cross element UHF yagi.jpg|left|frameless|133x133px]]
 +
 +
==== Yagi Antennas, Cross-element yagi antennas ====
 +
VHF/UHF directional antenna
 +
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
 +
 +
A common type of antenna that is either horizontally or vertically polarised. Simple to construct and suitable for a large number of satellites.
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
TBD
 +
 +
* TBD: Assembly instructions
 +
* [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/Yagi Source code for SatNOGS yagi antenna designs are here].
 +
|-
 +
|[[File:Wimo xquad vhf.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== WiMo X Quad ====
 +
VHF/UHF Cross-element Quad
 +
 +
Estimated cost: 149€ (VHF), 149€ (UHF)
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/6/ 6 - Apomahon]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/49/ 49 - OZ7SAT]
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/232/ 232 - VK5QI-AZ/EL]
 +
 +
* [https://www.wimo.com/xquad-antennas_e.html Product link]
 
|
 
|
 +
|[[File:Satnogs helical v1.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 +
==== Helical Antennas ====
 +
UHF circularly polarized directional antenna
 +
 +
Estimated cost: TBD
 +
 +
A less common type that are circularly polarized. The antenna looks a bit like a corkscrew and can be either LHCP (Left hand circular polarisation) or RHCP (right hand circular polarisation).
 +
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 +
[https://network.satnogs.org/stations/6/ 6 - Apomahon]
 +
 +
* v4 [https://satnogs.dozuki.com/Guide/Helical+Antenna+v4/11 Assembly instructions]
 +
* [https://ohai.satnogs.org/project/helical-antenna-v5/ v5 Assembly instructions]
 +
* [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/Helical Source code for SatNOGS helical antenna designs are here.]
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|[[File:Arrow Portable Yagi.jpg|left|frameless|100x100px]]
 +
 
 +
==== Arrow Dual-band portable yagi ====
 +
VHF/UHF portable yagi
 +
 
 +
Estimated cost: $83-$149
 +
 
 +
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
 +
 
 +
TBD
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.arrowantennas.com/arrowii/146-437.html Product price/ordering link]
 +
* [http://www.arrowantennas.com/sub/arrowiiyagi.html Product details link]
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|[[File:Elk Log Periodic.jpg|left|frameless|112x112px]]
|
+
 
|
+
==== Elk Log Periodic ====
|}
+
VHF/UHF portable yagi
  
<p>A rotator based ground station is able to make use of directional antennas. These will have a directional gain, meaning that you will need to point them in the direction of the satellite but the signal you receive will be stronger and for longer. They will allow much lower to the horizon passes to be received and more successful observations. These are not complex antennas but the choice will depend on the type of satellite and there are variations on the main types. Yagi, helical and quad.</p>
+
Estimated cost: $130-$163
<ul>
 
<li>Yagi antennas. &ndash; A common type of antenna that is either horizontally or vertically polarised. Simple to construct and suitable for a large number of satellites. Designs for the SatNOGS versions for VHF and UHF are here [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/Yagi here].</li>
 
<li>Helical antennas &ndash; A less common type that are &lsquo;handed&rsquo;. The antenna looks a bit like a corkscrew and can be either LHCP (Left hand circular polarisation) or RHCP (right hand circular polarisation). The SatNOGS designs are [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/Helical here].</li>
 
<li>Quad antennas &ndash; This type of antenna has a square appearance and have electrically switchable polarisation, some types will be horizontal, vertical or circularly polarised. No SatNOGS designs currently exist for this type of antenna.</li>
 
</ul>
 
  
<p>For reference the NEC files for modelling of the antennas is also available from [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-antennas/tree/master/NEC The Git Repository].</p>
+
<u>Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:</u>
  
==Constructing the SatNOGS antennas==
+
TBD
<p>Guides are available for construction the SatNOGS designs. The Yagi antennas are simpler and require no specialist tools whilst the helical antenna will need access to milling and turning equipment.</p>
 
<ul>
 
<li>Yagi construction guide (Construction guide required)</li>
 
<li>UHF helical antenna construction guide &ndash; [https://ohai.satnogs.org/project/helical-antenna-v5/hardware/ V5 Design]</li>
 
</ul>
 
  
 +
* [https://elkantennas.com/product/dual-band-2m440l5-log-periodic-antenna/ Product link]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
  
 +
<p></p>
 
<p>A radome design is available from SatNOGS. This will protect the ground station from the elements in all but extra ordinary conditions. The design can be found [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-radome/blob/master/satnogs-radome-v1-bom.ods here] and construction guide [https://ohai.satnogs.org/project/satnogs-radome-v1/hardware/ here].&nbsp;</p>
 
<p>A radome design is available from SatNOGS. This will protect the ground station from the elements in all but extra ordinary conditions. The design can be found [https://gitlab.com/librespacefoundation/satnogs/satnogs-radome/blob/master/satnogs-radome-v1-bom.ods here] and construction guide [https://ohai.satnogs.org/project/satnogs-radome-v1/hardware/ here].&nbsp;</p>
 
==Commercial Antennas==
 
<p>An alternative to home made antennas is to buy a commercial type. These can be expensive and will, in general, not offer significant improvements over well constructed homebrew antenna. Both the Arrow [http://www.arrowantennas.com/arrowii/146-437.html Arrow II Satellite Antenna] and Elk antennas [https://elkantennas.com/product/dual-band-2m440l5-log-periodic-antenna/ Log Periodic] are commonly used for ground stations as well as the [http://www.wimo.com/xquad-antennas_e.html Wimo X Quad Antenna's]</p>
 

Revision as of 19:07, 2 February 2019

The type of antenna largely depends on the type of ground station. A no rotator ground station will benefit from a different type of antenna (omnidirectional) than a rotator based ground station (directional). The two different approaches are explored below. In addition to the choice of antenna the choice of location for the ground station will have an effect on the quality of observations.

Non-Rotator Ground Station (Omnidirectional)

This type of ground station will require an antenna that will give a broad coverage from its fixed position. It is therefore not just the antenna that needs to be considered but also the proximity of buildings, geography or metallic structures that might be in the path of a line of sight between the ground station and satellite.

Typical ground stations have had success with simple wire antennas that can be commercially bought or made at home. Colinear or ‘white stick’ antennas are vertically polarised omnidirectional antennas. These have anecdotally been used for successful satellite work but should be avoided. The following are considered suitable choices:

It is highly recommended that you use a mast-mounted Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) with these antennas.

Commercial Antennas

Homebrew Antennas

WiMo TA-1.gif

WiMo TA-1

VHF Turnstile

Estimated cost: 90€

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

141 - balcony-only-east-passes

33 - G7KSE

129 - Chabot Space And Science Center

VHF Turnstile.jpg

Turnstile

Estimated cost: TBD

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

13 - OZ9AEC-VHF1

7 - Stony

16 - VK5QI-70CM

M2 Eggbeaters.png

M2 Eggbeater

VHF / UHF Eggbeater Antennas

Estimated cost: $304 (VHF), $280 (UHF), $573 (combo)

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

50 - N5CNB-UHF

77 - N5CNB-VHF

VHF EZ-Lindenblad.png

Lindenblad

Estimated cost: TBD

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

12 - W2BFJ

98 - Grove-UHF-01

442 - DL1UNX-FFB VHF

Winkler Turnstile.jpg

Winkler Turnstile

VHF/UHF Turnstile Antennas

Estimated cost: 40€ (VHF), 30€ (UHF)

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

TBD

UHF Paralindy.jpg

UHF Parasitic Lindenblad

Estimated cost: $15 (with access to a 3D printer)

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

300 - KB9JHU-Experimental

32 - SV1QZZ - UHF #2

187 - K3LRD UHF Lindenblad

Quadrifilar Antennas.png

Quadrifilar Helix Antenna (QFH)

Estimated cost: TBD

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

272 - K3LRD VHF QFH

255 - EA5BZ - Elche

183 - SPUTNIX-R2ANF-VHF/UHF-stationary

Vhf moxon turnstile.png

"Turnstiled" Moxon

Estimated cost: TBD

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

TBD

Rotator Ground Station

A rotator based ground station is able to make use of directional antennas. These will have a directional gain, meaning that you will need to point them in the direction of the satellite but the signal you receive will be stronger and for longer. They will allow much lower to the horizon passes to be received and more successful observations. These are not complex antennas but the choice will depend on the type of satellite and there are variations on the main types: yagi, helical and quad.

Commercial Antennas

Homebrew Antennas

M2 Leopack.png

M2 Circularly Polarized Yagis

VHF/UHF Cross-element Yagi

Estimated cost: $296 (UHF), $296 (VHF), $638 (Combo kit)

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

2 - KB9JHU

109 - EA6WQ - Tomas Orzaez

25 - N7IPY

Cross element UHF yagi.jpg

Yagi Antennas, Cross-element yagi antennas

VHF/UHF directional antenna

Estimated cost: TBD

A common type of antenna that is either horizontally or vertically polarised. Simple to construct and suitable for a large number of satellites.

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

TBD

Wimo xquad vhf.jpg

WiMo X Quad

VHF/UHF Cross-element Quad

Estimated cost: 149€ (VHF), 149€ (UHF)

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

6 - Apomahon

49 - OZ7SAT

232 - VK5QI-AZ/EL

Satnogs helical v1.jpg

Helical Antennas

UHF circularly polarized directional antenna

Estimated cost: TBD

A less common type that are circularly polarized. The antenna looks a bit like a corkscrew and can be either LHCP (Left hand circular polarisation) or RHCP (right hand circular polarisation).

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

6 - Apomahon

Arrow Portable Yagi.jpg

Arrow Dual-band portable yagi

VHF/UHF portable yagi

Estimated cost: $83-$149

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

TBD

Elk Log Periodic.jpg

Elk Log Periodic

VHF/UHF portable yagi

Estimated cost: $130-$163

Some SatNOGS stations using this antenna:

TBD

A radome design is available from SatNOGS. This will protect the ground station from the elements in all but extra ordinary conditions. The design can be found here and construction guide here